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What is Linux Environment?


Linux is an operating system which means it is a set of programmes that act as a link between the computer and the user. A Linux Environment is defined as a set of environment variables. A variable is a character series to which we can allocate a value. The value assigned can be a number, text, filename etc.Some variables are set by the system,some by the users,and some by the shell or any program. Linux is written by Linux Trovalds with the help of developers around the world. Linux is developed by GNU General Public License. A variety of scientific applications and libraries are developed under Linux.

What is Shell?


A shell is an edge to the Linux system. It gathers input from the user and executes programs based on that input. After executing the input, the program displays the output. There are different types of shell just as there are different types of operating systems. Each type has its own sets of command.

Directories of Linux Environment?


A directory in an operating system is a file the solo job of which is to store the file names and the related information. All files whether ordinary or special are stored in a directory. The structure inside a directory is often defined as a directory tree. The directory tree has a single root node i.e. the slash character (/) and all the directories & subdirectories are below it.
The directory which a user finds him after first login is known as the Home Directory. The command(~) denotes the home directory.

Directories & subdirectories are arranged as per hierarchy with a (/) sign at the top. The position of the directories and subdirectories within this hierarchy is denoted by its Path name.
In a directory there are various files. In order to list those files the command which is used is ($lsdirname).

Directories are created by the command ($mkdir dirname).
Directories are removed by the command ($rmdir dirname).
For changing names of the directories by specifying an absolute or relative path, the command which is used is ($cd dirname).
To rename a directory the command which is used is ($mv olddir newdir).

Processing system in Linux


To understand the Linux Environment, it’s is necessary to understand the process management. Whenever a user gives a command it creates or starts a new process to execute the command. There are two ways of executing a command

 Foreground Process –It is by default process. In an operating system every input is given from the keyboard and sends the output to the screen. Therefore every process that we give runs in the foreground.
 Background Process – The background process runs without being connected to the keyboard. The advantage of running this process is that the user doesn’t have to wait for the output of one command and can work with other commands.

Network Communication in Linux Environment


Linux environment is a distributed environment where users communicate with other users in remote location and have to access Linux machines in remote locations. There are several commands which helps users to communicate within themselves like the( Ping) command,( ftp)command,( telnet )command,(finger) command.

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