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Negotiations is a process or method through which differences are settle down by people. Through negotiations agreement or compromised can be reached by avoiding dispute and argument.
Stages of Negotiations
Preparation: – Before starting any negotiation, some works need to be done i.e. when and where the problem need to be discuss (i.e. date, time & place), attendance of the meeting, time period of the meeting.
Discussion: -All the members who attend the meeting for negotiation, put forward their findings i.e.what they understand of that situation. The key skill here required is listening, questioning & clarifying.
Clarification of goal: -By discussing, certain things that’s needs to be clarify i.e. viewpoints, interest & goal of the disagreement from both the unit and parties.
Negotiate towards a win-win outcome: -When both the parties feels that their view point had taken into account and they had achieved something positive from it, then that situation or stage is a win-win stage for both the team.
Agreement: -When both the parties comes to a point, agreement can be done.
Implementation of a course of action: -So, for taking any decision the course of discussion need to be implement.
Failure to Agree in Negotiations
If the above negotiation process breakdown and we cannot be reached to a certain agreement, then meeting is re-programmed or re-schedule. By re-scheduling it’s not only save time, but also the heat exchange which may arise by the parties through argument and discussion.
There are many situation arises where we had to negotiate in more informal way. Many a times where differences arises then it may not be possible to process it through as per above mention process, in that situation we had to go through informal way.
Whatever may be the negotiation, the below mention three element is most important for any outcome of negotiation
• Attitude: – Attitude plays an influential role for any outcome of negotiation.
• Knowledge: – A good understanding is necessary for a good outcome of negotiation.
• Interpersonal Skills: -For effective negotiations interpersonal skills should be good. The various skill i.e. listening, verbal communication, reduction in misunderstanding, problem solving, rapport building, decision making, dealing in different and difficult situation.
Different Types of Negotiation
• Distributive Negotiation:- It’s known by other name also i.e. hard-bargaining negotiation or positional negotiation. Here the benefits or gain of one party will came from the expenses or loss of other parties i.e. zero-sum conditions. So, it is win-lose negotiation as one party win and other party lose it.
• Integrative Negotiation: -It’s known by other name also i.e. merit based, interest based, or principal based negotiation. While in distributive negotiation the value of the amount is fixed (i.e. fixed pie) but in case of integrative negotiation they try to create value during the course of negotiation (i.e. expand the pie).
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